A New Frontier in Ultralow Power Wireless Links: Network-on-Chip and Chip-to-Chip Interconnects

This paper explores the general framework and prospects for on-chip and off-chip wireless interconnects implemented for high-performance computing (HPC) systems in the context of micro power wireless design. HPC interconnects demand very high (≥ 10 Gb/s) transmission rates using ultraefficient (~ 1 pJ/bit) transceivers over extremely short (≤ 100 cm) ranges. In an attempt to design such wireless interconnects, first a model for the wireless communication channel properties is developed. The use of CMOS-based energyefficient on-off keying (OOK) transceiver architectures operating in the 60-90 GHz bands is considered as a practical solution. In order to address strict performance requirements of wireless HPC interconnects, and taking advantage of the recent developments in device scaling, compact low-power and innovative circuits based on novel double-gate MOSFETs (DG-MOSFETs) are proposed in the implementation of the architecture.

The performance of a compact low-noise amplifier (LNA) design using common source (CS) inductive degeneration with 32 nm DGMOSFETs is investigated by quantitative analysis and simulation. The proposed inductor-less two-stage cascode cascade LNA is optimized for 90 GHz operation and has the advantage of gain switching over its CMOS counterpart without the use of additional switching transistors, which makes it remarkably power efficient and faster. As further examples of efficient and compact DG-MOSFET circuits for OOK transceiver design, a three-stage CS 5 dB tunable power amplifier operating up to 90 GHz, and a novel 90 GHz voltage controlled oscillator are also presented. This is followed by the proposal of an array of four monopole antennas studied using full-wave EM solver.

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